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What is Science of Superstitions ? (Part 1)

SCIENCE OF SUPERSTITIONS : “Probably the most beautiful experience we could have could be the mysterious. It’s the fundamental emotion that stands at the cradle of true art and true science.”

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Science and superstition articles

SCIENCE OF SUPERSTITIONS : “Probably the most beautiful experience we could have could be the mysterious. It’s the fundamental emotion that stands at the cradle of true art and true science.”


Albert Einstein, The World as I See It, 1931

The debate between realism and anti-realism is, at the least, a century old. Does Science describe the real world – or are its theories true only inside a certain conceptual framework? Is science only instrumental or empirically adequate or will there be more to it than that? The existing – mythological – image of scientific enquiry is the following:

Without resorting to reality, you can, given infinite time and resources, produce all conceivable theories. One of these brilliant theories is bound to function as “truth “.To determine one of them, scientists conduct experiments and compare their results to predictions yielded by the theories. A theory is falsified when one or more of its predictions fails. No level of excellent results – i.e., outcomes that confirm the theory’s predictions – can “prove right” a theory. Theories can only be proven false by that great arbiter, reality. Jose Ortega y Gasset said (in an unrelated exchange) that most ideas stem from pre-rational beliefs. William James concurred by saying that accepting a truth often requires an act of will which goes beyond facts and into the realm of feelings.


Maybe so, but there is little doubt today that beliefs are somehow involved in the synthesis of many scientific ideas, if not of the very endeavor of Science. All things considered, Science is an individual activity and humans always feel that things exist (=are true) or could possibly be true. A distinction is traditionally made between believing in something’s existence, truth, value of appropriateness (this is the way in which so it must be) – and believing that something. The latter is just a propositional attitude: we genuinely believe that something, we wish that something, we believe something and we feel that something. Believing in A and believing that A – are different.

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It’s reasonable to think that belief is just a limited affair. Few people would tend to believe in contradictions and falsehoods. Catholic theologians speak about explicit belief (in something which can be known to the believer to be true) versus implicit one (in the known consequences of something whose truth can not be known). Truly, we rely on the likelihood of something (we, thus, express an opinion) – or in its certain existence (truth). All humans rely on the existence of connections or relationships between things. This is not something which is often proven or proven false (to use Popper’s test). That things consistently follow one another doesn’t prove they’re related in just about any objective, “real”, manner – except inside our minds.


This belief in a few order (if we define order as permanent relations between separate physical or abstract entities) permeates both Science and Superstition. They both feel that there has to be – and is – a link between things out there. Science limits itself and believes that only certain entities inter-relate within well defined conceptual frames (called theories). Not everything gets the potential to get in touch to everything else. Entities are discriminated, differentiated, classified and assimilated in worldviews relating with the kinds of connections that they forge with each other. Moreover, Science believes which it has a pair of very efficient tools in order to identify, distinguish, observe and describe these relationships.

See also :  What is Science of Superstitions ? (Part 2)

It proves its point by issuing highly accurate predictions in line with the relationships discerned by making use of said tools. Science (mostly) claims these connections are “true” meaning likely certain – not probable. The cycle of formulation, prediction and falsification (or proof) could be the core of the human being scientific activity. Alleged connections that can not be captured in these nets of reasoning are cast out either as “hypothetical” or as “false “.Quite simply: Science defines “relations between entities” as “relations between entities which has been established and tested utilizing the scientific apparatus and arsenal of tools “.This, admittedly, is a very cyclical argument, as close to tautology as it gets.

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Superstition is a incredibly easier matter: all things are plugged into all things in ways unbeknown to us. We can only witness the results these subterranean currents and deduce arsenic intoxication such currents through the observable flotsam. The planets influence our everyday life, dry coffee sediments contain details about the long run, black cats portend disasters, certain dates are propitious, certain numbers should be avoided. The modern world is unsafe because it might do not be fathomed. But the fact that we – limited even as we are – cannot discover a hidden connection – ought not imply it doesn’t exist. Science believes in two classes of relationships between entities (physical and abstract alike).

The main one is the category of direct links – the other that from links by way of a third entity. In the initial case, A and B are considered being directly related. In the second case, there isn’t a apparent link between A and B, but a 3rd entity, C could well provide such appreciable link (for instance, if A and B are elements of C or are separately, but concurrently somehow depending it). These two classes is split to a few subcategories: causal relationships, functional relationships and correlative relationship. A and B is going to be said to be causally related if A precedes B, B never occurs if A won’t precede it and also occurs after A occurs. Towards discerning eye, this looks to become relationship of correlation (“whenever A happens B happens”) and that is true.


Causation is subsumed by way of a the 1.0 correlation relationship category. Quite simply: this can be a private case of your more general case of correlation. A and B are functionally related if B is usually predicted by assuming A but we’ve no way of establishing the simple truth importance of A. Rogues is a postulate or axiom. Time dependent Schrödinger Equation is a postulate (cannot be derived, it is simply reasonable). Still, it does not take dynamic laws underlying wave mechanics, an integral part of quantum mechanics, probably the most accurate scientific theory that many of us have. An unproved, non-derivable equation is related functionally to quite a few exceedingly precise statements about reality (observed experimental results).

A and B are correlated if A explains a significant the main existence or the type of B. It is then clear that A and B are related. Evolution has equipped us with highly developed correlation mechanisms as they are efficient in insuring survival. To visit a tiger in order to associate the awesome sight with an audio is very useful. Still, we simply cannot state with any modicum of certainty which i possess lots of conceivable tools for ones detection, description, analysis and using of relations between entities. Put differently: we simply cannot say that lacking connections that escape the tight nets which i cast for you to capture them. We cannot, as an illustration, say with any identify certainty that lacking hyper-structures which would supply new, surprising insights in to the interconnectedness of objects in the real world or perhaps in our mind.


We cannot even say that epistemological structures with which there we were endowed are final or satisfactory. Do not know enough about knowing. Consider the cases of Non-Aristotelian logic formalisms, Non-Euclidean geometries, Newtonian Mechanics and non classical physical theories (the relativity theories and, more so, quantum mechanics will be various interpretations). Every one revealed to us connections which we would not have imagined previous to their appearance. Every one created new tools for ones capture of interconnectivity and inter-relatedness. Every one suggested one kind or the other of mental hyper-structures rrn which new links between entities (hitherto considered disparate) might established.

So far, so excellent for superstitions. Today’s superstition could well become tomorrow’s Science given a good theoretical developments. The cause in the clash lies elsewhere, during the insistence of superstitions upon a causal relation. The general structure associated with a superstition is: A is resulting from B. The causation propagates through unknown (one or more) mechanisms. These mechanisms are unidentified (empirically) or unidentifiable (in principle). One example is, al the mechanisms of causal propagation that happens to be somehow related to divine powers can’t, in principle, be understood (because the actual nature of divinity is sealed to human understanding).


Thus, superstitions incorporate mechanisms of action that happens to be, either, unknown to Science – or are impossible to discover, as far as Science goes. Lots of the “action-at-a-distance” mechanisms are of link units type (unknowable). Parapsychological mechanisms are more of the first kind (unknown). The philosophical argument behind superstitions is pretty straightforward and appealing. Perhaps it is the origin of their appeal. It is the following:

  • There’s little that are usually imagined that doesn’t seem possible (in lots of Universes);
  • Nothing impossible (in lots of Universes) which could be imagined;
  • Everything which could be seriously considered – is, therefore, possible (somewhere during the Universes);
  • Precisely what is workable exists (somewhere during the Universes).
  • If something are usually imagined (=is possible) and is not known (=proven or observed) yet – it’s always likely a result of the shortcomings of Science instead of because it not exist.

Some of these propositions can be easily attacked. For example: we are able to consider contradictions and falsehoods but (apart from a questionnaire of mental representation) no body will claim which they exist in reality or that they’re possible. These statements, though, apply well to entities, the existence of which includes yet to be disproved (=not known as false, or whose truth value is uncertain) and to improbable (though possible) things. It is in these formal logical niches that superstition thrives.


APPENDIX – From “The Cycle of Science”


“There clearly was an occasion once the newspapers stated that only twelve men understood the theory of relativity. I do not believe that there ever was this type of time… On one other hand, I believe that it is safe to say that no body understands quantum mechanics… Do not keep saying to yourself, if you can possibly avoid it,’But how would it be like that?’ , when you will get’down the drain’right into a blind alley that nobody has yet escaped. Nobody knows how it may be like that.”

R. P. Feynman (1967)

“The initial processes, therefore, in the effectual studies of the sciences, must be ones of simplification and reduced total of the outcome of previous investigations to a questionnaire in which the mind can grasp them.”

J. C. Maxwell, On Faraday’s lines of force

” …conventional formulations of quantum theory, and of quantum field theory particularly, are unprofessionally vague and ambiguous. Professional theoretical physicists ought to have the ability to do better. Bohm has shown us a way.”

John S. Bell, Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics

“It would appear that the theory [quantum mechanics] is exclusively concerned with’results of measurement ‘, and has nothing to say about anything else. What exactly qualifies some physical systems to play the role of’measurer ‘? Was the wavefunction of the planet waiting to jump for tens of thousands of countless years until a single-celled living creature appeared? Or made it happen have to attend a little longer, for many better qualified system … with a Ph.D.? If the theory is to use to anything but highly idealized laboratory operations, are we not obliged to admit that just about’measurement-like’processes are getting on just about constantly, just about everywhere. Do we not need jumping then constantly?

The initial charge against’measurement ‘, in the fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics, is so it anchors the shifty split of the planet into’system’and’apparatus ‘. A second charge is that the word comes laden with meaning from every day life, meaning that is entirely inappropriate in the quantum context. When it’s stated that something is’measured’it’s difficult not to think of the end result as discussing some pre-existing property of the item in question. That is to disregard Bohr’s insistence that in quantum phenomena the apparatus in addition to the system is essentially involved. When it weren’t so, how could we understand, as an example, that’measurement’of a element of’angular momentum’… in an arbitrarily chosen direction … yields one of a discrete group of values?

When one forgets the role of the apparatus, because word’measurement’makes all too likely, one despairs of ordinary logic … hence’quantum logic ‘. When one remembers the role of your apparatus, ordinary logic is fine. In other contexts, physicists are actually able to take words from ordinary language and utilize them as technical terms without the need of great harm done. Take for example the’strangeness ‘,’charm ‘, and’beauty’of elementary particle physics. We’re not drawn in through this’baby talk ‘… Would that this were so with’measurement ‘. But in fact the phrase has received this kind of damaging impact on the discussion, that It should certainly banned altogether in quantum mechanics.”

J. S. Bell, Against “Measurement”

“Don’t you find it clear from your smallness of your scintillation on the screen that we have to do with a particle? And is it not clear, from your diffraction and interference patterns, the fact that motion of your particle is directed with a wave? De Broglie showed in more detail how a motion of a particle, passing through just 1 of 2 holes in screen, can be relying on waves propagating through both holes. And thus influenced the fact that particle will not go the spot that the waves eliminate, but is drawn to where they co-operate. This concept appears to me so natural and, to fix the wave-particle dilemma ordinary clear and ordinary way, it’s a great mystery in my opinion that this was generally ignored.”

J. S. Bell, Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics

“…in physics a common observations we must consider are position observations, if only the positions of instrument pointers. It is a fantastic merit of your de Broglie-Bohm picture to force us to think about this fact. If you make axioms, as opposed to definitions and theorems, in regards to the “measurement” of everything else, in which case you commit redundancy and risk inconsistency.”

J. S. Bell, Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics

“To outward appearance, today’s world came into this world of anti religious movement: man becoming self-sufficient and reason supplanting belief. Our generation and each that preceded it often hear little of but talk of your conflict between science and faith; indeed it seemed at one moment a foregone conclusion that the previous was going to replace the latter… After close on 220 years of passionate struggles, neither science nor faith has succeeded in discrediting its adversary. To the contrary, it gets obvious that neither can be cultivated normally minus the other. And the reason being simple: exactly the same life animates both. Neither included in the impetus nor its achievements can science pay a visit to the brink without becoming tinged with mysticism and convicted of faith.”

Pierre Thierry de Chardin, “The Phenomenon of Man”

I opened this appendix with lengthy quotations of John S. Bell, the main proponent of your Bohemian Mechanics interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (really, another solution as opposed to an interpretation). The renowned physicist, David Bohm (in the 50s), basing himself on work done much earlier by de Broglie (the unwilling father of your wave-particle dualism), embedded the Schrödinger Equation (SE throughout this article) in any deterministic physical theory which postulated a non-Newtonian motion of particles. This is a fine demonstration of the relationship cycle of scientific theories. Witchcraft, Religion, Alchemy and Science succeeded the other person and each and every such transition was seen as a transitional pathologies reminiscent of psychotic disorders.

The exceptions are (arguably) medicine and biology. A phenomenology of ossified bodies of data will make an appealing read. Here is the end of the aforementioned life cycle: Growth, Pathology, Ossification. This informative article identifies the existing Ossification Phase of Science and suggests that it’s potential succeeded by another discipline. It will so after studying and rejecting other explanations to the present state of science: that human knowledge is fixed by its very nature, that the world is inherently incomprehensible, that techniques for carpet cleaning thought and understanding are inclined to self-organize to make closed mythic systems and that you have a problem of the language which we employ in making our inquiries around the world describable and communicable.

Kuhn’s procedure for Scientific Revolutions is but without doubt one of several approaches to issues of theory and paradigm shifts in scientific thought and its resulting evolution. Scientific theories seem to be subject to a procedure of natural selection even though organisms are typically in nature. Animals may just be construed to always be theorems (with an truth value) in your logical system “Nature “.But species become extinct because nature itself changes (not nature as a couple potentials – but the relevant natural phenomena this agreement the species are exposed). Could we are saying similar about scientific theories? Could they be being selected and deselected partly due to a changing, shifting backdrop?

Indeed, the main debate between “realists” and “anti-realists” in your philosophy of Science is usually thus settled, by adopting this single premise: the Universe is as opposed to a fixture. By contrasting a limited subject of the learning (“The World”) while using moving image of Science – anti-realists gained the top hand. Arguments for example the under-determination of theories by data and also the pessimistic meta-inductions from past falsity (of scientific “knowledge”) emphasized the transience and asymptotic nature of the fruits of the scientific endeavor. But this all rests on the implicit assumption that there are some universal, immutable, truth out there (which strives to approximate).

The apparent problem evaporates if we allow the observer and also the observed, the idea and its subject, the setting, in addition to fleeting images, to always be alterable. Science develops through decrease in miracles. Laws of nature are formulated. They are really assumed to encompass each of the (relevant) natural phenomena (that is, phenomena governed by natural forces and within nature). Ex definitio, nothing can exist outside nature – it is usually all-inclusive and all-pervasive, omnipresent (formerly the attributes of the divine). Supernatural forces, supernatural intervention – are really a contradiction in terms, oxymorons. Whether it exists – it is usually natural. That which is supernatural – just isn’t going to exist. Miracles do not simply contravene (or violate) the laws of nature – they’ve been impossible, not simply physically, but will also logically.

(to be continued,….. Part 2)

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Edu

What is Science of Superstitions ? (Part 2)

In its treatment of nature, Western culture is founded on realism and rationalism and purports to be devoid of superstitions. Granted, many Westerners – possibly the majority – remain into esoteric practices, such as for example Astrology. But the official culture and its bearers – scientists, as an example – disavow such throwbacks to a darker past.

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Science and superstitions articles

That which will be logically possible and can be experienced (observed), is physically possible. But, again, we confront the “fixed background” assumption. Imagine if nature itself changes in ways to confound everlasting, ever-truer knowledge? Then, the shift of nature as a whole, as a system, could be called “supernatural” or “miraculous “. In a tiny way, this is the way science evolves. A law of nature is proposed. An event or occurs or observation made which are not described or predicted by it. It is, by definition, a violation of the law. The laws of nature are modified, or re-written entirely, in order to reflect and encompass this extraordinary event. Hume’s distinction between “extraordinary” and “miraculous” events is upheld (the latter being ruled out).


The extraordinary ones can be compared to your previous experience – the miraculous entail some supernatural interference with the standard course of things (a “wonder” in Biblical terms). It is through confronting the extraordinary and eliminating its abnormal nature that science progresses as a miraculous activity. This, obviously, is not the view of the likes of David Deutsch (see his book, “The Fabric of Reality”). The last phase with this Life Cycle is Ossification. The discipline degenerates and, following the psychotic phase, it sinks in to a paralytic stage which will be characterized by these:

See also :  What is Science of Superstitions ? (Part 2)

Most of the practical and technological aspects of the discipline are preserved and continue being utilized. Gradually the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings vanish or are replaced by the tenets and postulates of a new discipline – but the inventions, processes and practical know-how don’t evaporate. They’re incorporated into the new discipline and, in time, are erroneously caused by it. This is a transfer of credit and the attribution of merit and benefits to the legitimate successor of the discipline. The practitioners of the discipline confine themselves to copying and replicating the various aspects of the discipline, mainly its intellectual property (writings, inventions, other theoretical material). The replication process doesn’t lead to the creation of new knowledge or to even the dissemination of old one.


It is really a hermetic process, limited to the ever decreasing circle of the initiated. Special institutions are set as much as rehash the materials linked to the discipline, process them and copy them. These institutions are financed and supported by the State which will be always an agent of conservation, preservation and conformity. Thus, the creative-evolutionary dimension of the discipline freezes over. No new paradigms or revolutions happen. Interpretation and replication of canonical writings end up being the predominant activity. Formalisms aren’t subjected to scrutiny and laws assume eternal, immutable, quality. Most of the activities of the adherents of the discipline become ritualized.

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The discipline itself becomes a pillar of the ability structures and, as a result, is commissioned and condoned by them. Its practitioners synergistically collaborate using them: with the industrial base, the military powerhouse, the political elite, the intellectual cliques in vogue. Institutionalization inevitably leads to the formation of a (mostly bureaucratic) hierarchy. Rituals serve two purposes. The foremost is to divert attention from subversive, “forbidden” thinking. As well as much as can be the case with obsessive-compulsive disorders in those who do ritualistic behavior patterns to deflect “wrong” or “corrupt” thoughts. Along with the second purpose is to cement the effectiveness of the “clergy” in the discipline.


Rituals absolutely are a specialized form expertise which can be obtained only through initiation procedures and experience. One’s status from the hierarchy just isn’t the end result of objectively quantifiable variables or maybe of judgment of merit. It is actually the end result of politics and other power-related interactions. The events of “Communist Genetics” (Lysenko) versus “Capitalist Genetics” and also the superpower races (space race, arms race) visit mind. Conformity, dogmatism, doctrines – all produce enforcement mechanisms which should never be subtle. Dissidents are put through sanctions: social sanctions and economic sanctions. They can find themselves ex-communicated, harassed, imprisoned, tortured, their works banished or you cannot published, ridiculed therefore on.

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This is really the triumph of text over the human beings spirit. The members of the discipline’s community forget the initial reasons to cause for his or her scientific pursuits. Why was the discipline developed? What were the initial riddles, questions, queries? How did it feel to become curious? Where’s the burning fire plus the glistening eyes and the feelings of unity with nature which were the prime moving forces behind the discipline? The cold ashes in the conflagration are the texts along with preservation is a manifestation of longing and desire for things past. The vacuum left with the absence of positive emotions – is filled by negative ones. The discipline and its particular disciples become phobic, paranoid, defensive, that has a blurred reality test.

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Devoid of new, attractive content, the discipline resorts to negative motivation by manipulation of negative emotions. Persons are frightened, threatened, herded, cajoled. The planet without having the discipline is painted in a apocalyptic palette as ruled by irrationality, disorderly, chaotic, dangerous, even lethally so. New, emerging disciplines, are presented as heretic, fringe lunacies, inconsistent, reactionary and bound to steer humanity back to some dark ages. This is actually the inter-disciplinary or inter-paradigm clash. It follows the Psychotic Phase. That old discipline resorts to some transcendental entity (God, Satan, the conscious intelligent observer from the Copenhagen interpretation in the formalism of Quantum Mechanics).

On this sense, it has already been psychotic and fails its reality test. It develops messianic aspirations which is inspired by the missionary zeal and zest. Combating new ideas and theories is bloody and ruthless and every possible set up is employed. But the actual characteristics in the older nomenclature is in the disfavor. It is actually closed, according to ritualistic initiation, patronizing. It utilizes intimidation. Diet plan the faithful dwindles the better the “church” needs them and the better it resorts to oppressive recruitment tactics. The emerging knowledge wins by historical default and never a result of the results of a typical fierce fight. The initiated desert.


Their belief unravels when confronted with the simple truth value, explanatory and predictive powers, plus the comprehensiveness in the emerging discipline. This, indeed, often is the main presenting symptom, distinguishing hallmark, of paralytic old disciplines. They deny reality. The absolutely are a belief-system, a myth, requiring suspension of judgment, the voluntary limitation in the quest, the agreement to go away swathes in the map in the state of a blank “terra incognita “.This reductionism, this avoidance, their replacement by some transcendental authority are the start of an end.

Consider Physics


The Universe is mostly a complex, orderly system. When it were a smart being, we can be compelled to state that this had “chosen” to preserve form (structure), order and complexity – and also increase them whenever and wherever it can. You can easily refer to this as an all-natural inclination or an inclination in the Universe. This explains why evolution will not stop for the protozoa level. Considering that, these mono-cellular organisms were (and still are, poisonous of years later) superbly adapted recommended to their environment. Rrt had been Bergson who posed the question: why did nature prefer potential risk of unstable complexity over predictable and reliable and durable simplicity?


The solution appears to be which your Universe provides a predilection (not confined to the biological realm) to extend complexity and order and the fact that principle takes precedence over “utilitarian” calculations of stability. The battle between entropic arrow and the negentropic the first is more vital than every (in-built) “consideration “.It’s Time itself and Thermodynamics pitted against Man (as an important part of the Universe), Order (a systemic, extensive parameter) against Disorder. Within this context, natural selection ‘s no more “blind” or “random” than its subjects. It can be discriminating, exercises discretion, encourages structure, complexity and order. The contrast that Bergson stipulated between Natural Selection and Élan Vitale is grossly misplaced: Natural Selection IS the vital power itself.

Modern Physics is converging with Philosophy (possibly using the philosophical side of Religion as well) and the convergence is precisely where concepts of Order and disorder emerge. String theories, such as, come in several versions which describe many possible different worlds. Granted, they often all be facets of the identical Being (distant echoes of the modern versions in the Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics). Still, why will we, intelligent conscious observers, see (=why are we exposed to) only looking after in the Universe? Aches and pains ? this aspect “selected”? The Universe is constrained this particular “selection process” by their own history – but history shouldn’t be synonymous using the Laws of Nature. Link units determine the previous – does the previous also determine rogues? To paraphrase: were the Laws of Nature “selected” to boot and, if you have, how?


The solution seems self evident: the Universe “selected” both Natural Laws and – therefore – their own history. The selection process was while using principle of Natural Selection. A filter was applied: whatever increased order, complexity, structure – survived. Indeed, our very survival in the form of species holds largely based mostly on these things. Our Universe – having survived – has to be an optimized Universe. Only order-increasing Universes you should not succumb to entropy and death (the weak hypothesis). It will probably even be argued (as we do here) which our Universe is the actual possible variety of Universe (the semi-strong hypothesis) or use the only Universe (the strong hypothesis). The essence belonging to the Anthropic Principle.

By definition, universal rules pervade most of the realms of existence. Biological systems must obey the equivalent order-increasing (natural) laws as physical ones and social ones. Efficient a section of the Universe with the sense that we are subject to your same discipline and adhere to your same “religion “.Efficient an inevitable result – not a possibility happening. We might possibly be the culmination of orderly processes – not the of random events. The Universe enables us and our society because – and only so long as – we increase order. Which is not to imply there’s an intention for it by the Universe (or a “higher being” or possibly a “higher power”). There isn’t a conscious or God-like spirit. There isn’t a religious assertion.


We merely say that any system that has Order becasue it is founding principle will frequently favor order, to breed it, to positively select its proponents and deselect its opponents – and, finally, to convey birth to increasingly more sophisticated weapons with the pro-Order arsenal. We, humans, were this order-increasing weapon until recently. These intuitive assertions can be simply converted into a formalism. In Quantum Mechanics, the State Vector might be constrained to collapse to your most Order-enhancing event. If we had a pc how big the Universe which could infallibly model it – we would have had time to predict which event boosts the transaction with the Universe overall. No collapse would are required then rarely are probabilistic calculations.

It is possible to prove that events will follow a path of maximum order, because the modern world is orderly and more so. Had this not been true, evenly statistically scattered event can be caused a rise in entropy (thermodynamic laws might possibly be the offspring of statistical mechanics). But this simply fails to happen. Which is wrong to are convinced that order increases only in isolated “pockets”, in local regions individuals universe. It’s always increasing everywhere, at all times, on all scales of measurement. Therefore, we have to conclude that quantum events are guided by some non-random principle (such for the reason that development of order). This, exactly, can be the case in biology.

There isn’t a reason you need to to set up a life wavefunction which will always collapse to your most order increasing event. If we construct and apply this wave function to our society – we will probably find ourselves as one of the events after its collapse.

Appendix – Interview granted to Adam Anderson

1. Do you imagine that superstitions have affected American culture? Therefore, how?

A. In its treatment of nature, Western culture is founded on realism and rationalism and purports to be devoid of superstitions. Granted, many Westerners – possibly the majority – remain into esoteric practices, such as for example Astrology. But the official culture and its bearers – scientists, as an example – disavow such throwbacks to a darker past. Today, superstitions are less focused on the physical Universe and more with human affairs. Political falsities – such as for example anti-Semitism – supplanted magic and alchemy. Fantastic beliefs permeate the fields of economics, sociology, and psychology, for instance.

The consequences of progressive taxation, the usefulness of social welfare, the role of the media, the objectivity of science, the mechanism of democracy, and the event of psychotherapy – are six samples of such groundless fables. Indeed, one oft-neglected facet of superstitions is their pernicious economic cost. Irrational action carries a price tag. It’s impossible to optimize one’s economic activity by making the proper decisions and then functioning on them in a community or culture permeated by the occult. Esotericism skews the appropriate allocation of scarce resources.

2. Are there any superstitions that exist today that you imagine could become facts tomorrow, or that you imagine have significantly more fact than fiction hidden in them?

A. Superstitions stem from one of these four premises:

  • That there surely is nothing that may be thought of that is impossible (in all possible Universes);
  • That there surely is nothing impossible (in all possible Universes) that may be thought of;
  • That everything that may be thought of – is, therefore, possible (somewhere in these Universes);
  • That everything that is possible exists (somewhere in these Universes).

As long as our knowledge is imperfect (asymptotic to the truth), everything is possible. As Arthur Clark, the British scientist and renowned writer of science fiction, said: “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic “. Still, regardless of how “magical” it becomes, positive science is increasingly challenged by the esoteric. The emergence of pseudo-science is the sad outcome of the blurring of contemporary distinctions between physics and metaphysics. Modern science borders on speculation and attempts, to its disadvantage, to tackle questions that once were the exclusive preserve of religion or philosophy. The scientific method is ill-built to cope with such quests and is inferior to the various tools developed over centuries by philosophers, theologians, and mystics.

Moreover, scientists often confuse language of representation with meaning and data represented. Which a discipline of info uses quantitative methods along with the symbol system of mathematics will not convert it into a science. The saying “social sciences” is surely an oxymoron – and it also misleads the layman into convinced that science isn’t that dissimilar to literature, religion, astrology, numerology, and other esoteric “systems “. The emergence of “relative”, New Age, and politically correct philosophies rendered science merely one option among many. Knowledge, people believe, is usually gleaned either directly (mysticism and spirituality) or indirectly (scientific practice). Both paths are equivalent and equipotent. Who will be to declare that science surpasses other “bodies of wisdom”? Self-interested scientific chauvinism is out with friends – indiscriminate “pluralism” is in.

3. I have found one definition of your word “superstition”

That states that it must be “a belief or practice as a result of ignorance, fear of your unknown, trust in magic or chance, or a false conception of causation.” What exactly is your opinion about said definition? A. It describes what motivates people to adopt superstitions – ignorance and fear of your unknown. Superstitions are, indeed, a “false conception of causation” which inevitably leads to “trust in magic “.really the only part I disagree with could be the trust in chance. Superstitions are organizing principles. They function as alternatives with other worldviews, for example religion or science. Superstitions look to replace chance with the “explanation” replete with the electricity to calculate future events and establish chains of causes and effects.

4. Most people believe that superstitions were created to only teach a lesson

Like the earlier superstition that “the girl that can take the final cookie might be a classic maid” is made to instruct area manners. Do you’re thinking that all superstitions originate from some lesson seeking to become skilled at that today’s society has simply forgotten or cannot get connected to anymore? A. Jose Ortega y Gasset said (in an unrelated exchange) that each one ideas stem from pre-rational beliefs. William James concurred by saying that accepting a truth often requires an act of will which goes past facts and into your realm of feelings. Superstitions permeate our world. Some superstitions usually are meant to convey useful lessons, others form an element of the procedure for socialization, yet other medication is abused by various elites to manipulate the masses. But a majority turn there to comfort us by proffering “instant” causal explanations through rendering our Universe more meaningful.

5. Do you feel that superstitions change while using the changes in culture?

A. This article of superstitions along with the metaphors we use vary from culture to culture – but is not the shock and awe that yielded them in the 1st place. Man feels dwarfed inside a Cosmos beyond his comprehension. He seeks meaning, direction, safety, and guidance. Superstitions purport to supply each one of these building a way. To generally be superstitious have to to check or even toil. Superstitions are readily accessible and unequivocal. In troubled times, these are an irresistible proposition.

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Buyung Afrianto (UCLA ’26) is a serial technopreneur who founded Buyung Technologies Co., Ltd, a holdings company that owns: BuyungAfrianto.com™ | The latest daily blog site that presents news of the day and the latest news around the world to finance, lifestyle, automotive and sports news. And a very profitable Instagram channel @BuyungAfrianto also Twitter Account @BuyungCo . By doing what he love for living, he brings new meaning to the art of freedom. If I can be of any help or if you would like to do business with me, don’t hesitate to reach out!

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